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SAMPLE PAGES OF THE 



VASSAR COLLEGE 
POUGMKEEPSIE N Y 

Nov. 16,1922. 

DEPARTMENT OF BIBLICAL LITEBATUBE 

For several years I have ovmed a 
copy of the Crog3 - Ref erence Bible ; and 
have used it along with other Bibles. 

It is an excellent and really remarkable 
book. The men who prepared it are 
scholars of high standing, and know what 
a Bible student needs: and they have 
endeavored in this single volume to 
give him as much help as possible. 
7or the man who wishes to study the 
Bible itself, and not books about the 
Bible, I know of nothing better. 




Cross-Reference Bible Co., Inc. 

152 Chambers Street 
New York 



12: 26 



I CORINTHIANS 

THE BODY ONE, THE MEMBERS MANY. LOVE 



13. 9 



27 

<J See"Thi 

Church," 

Acta 20:28. 
e V. 12; comp. 

eh. l:2;Eph. 

1:23; 4:12; 

Col. 1:18, 24; 

2:19. 

1 Body, Num. 
25:8. 

g See "Divinity 

of Jesus," Lu. 

2:21. 
h Eph. 5:30; 

see Rom. 

12:5. 

2 Or, members 



isters," Acts 
15:39. 

Seech. 10:32/ 
Apostles, AlJ 



Acts 13:1 
des, Mk. 
!H6:17. 
Gr. powers. 
Gifts of the 
Spirit,, John 
14:16. 

Healing, Jer 



, Acts 



Interpreta- 
tion, I Cor. 
12:10. 



seliism in tiie body; but that the 
members should have the same 
care one for another. 20 And 
wliether one member " suffereth, 
members sufi'er with it; or 
one memijenT\;/ionored, all tJie 
members '^rejoice with it. 27 
Now ye are " ' the body of 
"Ghrlst, and ''^severally mem- 
bers thereof. 28 And * God hath 
' set * some in ' the church, first' 
'"apostles, secondly ""prophets, 
thirdly "'teachers, then '•''mira- 
cles, then 'gifts of 'healings, 
helps, ' ^ governments, divers 
kinds of ^ tongues. 29 Are all 
apostles? are all prophets? are 
teachers ? are all workers of 
3)miracles? 30 have all gifts of 
healings? do all speak with 
tongues? do all "interpret? 31 
But ' desire earnestly the greatei' 
gifts. And moreover a most ex- 
cellent way show I unto you. 
I Q If "I speak with the 
tongues of "men. and of 
angels, but hav? noC^ove, I am 

Var. Rend. — V. 27. sej^rally — ot a pa 

belonging to the eq/thly portion of the 
leal church), Ev. W28. helps — i.e. the 
functions of the dia^nate. Me. govern- 
unsels, R marg.; i.e. 
Ike funcliana of Ih/presbyternte, Me. V. 3 1 . 

still more excel- 
lent way I shej^ R. desire earnestly — So 
Wo.: seek zwflously, Sla. Al. Be. DeW. 
Bv. Me. Ol./ttu.; be zealous after, FIN. 

t way — a more excellent 
, , eminently excellent way, 

Al^ Vvjfi. Chrys. Be. Me. Da.; a way in 
_ . , - - -per-excellent way, 
FIN/ a way above all others, MAS. 
13. — V. 3. bestow — More lit. dole 
food, Bv. VIN. FIN. EDW. MAS. 
Vs. 4-7. " Love suffers long, shows kind- 
Love envies not, makes no self -display; 
Is not puffed up, behaves not unseemly; 
Seeks jiot her advantage, is not embit- 

Imputes not evil, rejoices not at wrong, 

but shares in the joy of the tnith. 
All things she tolerates, all things she 
believes; 

All things she hopes for, all things she 
— - " FIN. 




■ LOVE.— Song of Sol. 8:6,7; Lu. 7:42, 47; I Cor S'l - 13-1- 
13; 16:14; Eph. 5:2; Phil. 1:9; Col. 3:12-14; I Thess. 5 S- 

I Tim. 1:5. 

Source is in God.— I John 4:16. 

Love of God.- For Men— Ex. 20:6; Deut. 5:16; 7:9; 10:18; 

II Sam. 12:24; Job 7:17; Ps. 91:14; 103:13, 14- Pr 817- 
Mt. 5:43-45; 10:29-31; 18:1-14; Lu. 6:35; 12:6,7; .John 14:21' 
23; 16:27; 17:23,26; II Cor. 9:7; 13:19; II Thess. 2:16; ITim 
2:3, 4; II Pet. 3:9, 15; I John 3:1; Jude 21. 

He manifests His Love for Man — Ps. 31:19, 21; 90-1- Pr 
3:12; Is. 38:17; 56:6, 7; .ler. 32:18; Mai. 3:16-18; Mt 5-45- 
I Cor. 2:9; Heb. 11:16; 12:6. ' ' 



become sounding ''brass, of a 
"clanging ''cymbal. 2 And if I 
have (he gift of " prophecy, and 
know ail ''mysteries and ''all 
knowledge; and if I have * 'all 
faith, so as to remove "moun- 
tains, but have not love, I am 
nothing. 3 And if I "''bestow 
all my " ' goods to feed the ' poor, 
and if I ' " give my body 
be "burned, but have not 
lo^ it profiteth me nothing. 4 
suffereth long, and is 
kind;^^\'e " * envieth not; love 
vauntertv not itself, is not 
' puffed ui)>5 doth not behave 
itself unseeml}^'' ' seeketh not 
its own, is not ' p^voked, " tak- 
eth not account of N^il; 6 ""re- 
joiceth not in "unrigli^usness, 
but "rejoiceth with the\truth; 
7 " '■"bearethall things, 'bi 
eth all things, ' hopeth all thiri; 
endureth all things. 8 Lo 
never faileth: but whether there 
be prophecies, they shall be 
done away; whether there be 
tongues, they shall cease; 
whether there be knowledge, it 
shall be done away. 9 For we 

V. 4. vaunteth— fl'a/fccr, displays, Al. Be. 
Me. Wo. V. 5. taketh , . . evil — i.e. 
which is done to is, M e. V. 7. bearcth — 
So practically (rather , is proof against, £?;.) 
Al. DeW. Field, Me. Sta. Wo. Covereth, R 
marg. (i.e. Covers other men's' faults. Be. 
Al. and Rii. perhaps) GOV. SCHM. V. 
8. prophecies — i^e. speaking in. the spirit, 
Var.; speaking in tongues, SCHM. 

Var. Read. — Chap. V. 3. to be 

burned- ,So C D, La. Ti. Tr. Al. Scr.; 
that I may glory, NAB, 17, THEB. 
11-7/.' (difference of one letter in Greek). 



150:5 Sept. 
/ See "Music," 
1 Chr. 6:31. 



See V. 8; oh. 
11:4; 14:1, 3 
Acta 13:1; 
con>p. Mt. 



12:8. 



■Aln 



givmg 
29:13. 
Goods 



Job 

Num. 

31:9. 

Wealth, Josh. 

The Poor, 
Deut. 24:14. 
Sacrifice, Geu. 
31:54. 
Dan. 3:26. 
Many ancient 
authorities 
read that I 
may glory. 
See ''Fire," 
Lev. 10:2. 



See " Christian 



Pr. 10:12; 
17:9;IThe.s3. 
5:14; I'Pet. 
4:8. 

Kindness, 
Zoch. 7:9. 
See "Jeal- 
ousy," Ex. 



! "Pride," 
10:2. 
: Puffed up 



d See "Teaching of Jesus" on "Pride," Lu. 2:21. 
ITim. 3:5. / Ch. 4:6. 5 p Self-denial, Mt, 16:24. 7, See 
ch. 10:24; comp. Phil. 2:21. i Selfishness, Phil. 2:4. j See 
"Anger," Pr. 15:1 k II Cor. 5:19. I Evil, Ps. 97:10. 
6 mComp. II'^hess.2:12. n See "Sin," Gen. 3:0. o Coinn. 
II John 4; III John 3 f. p Truth, John 14:6. 7 gCh.9:12. 
r Sec"Foi'giveness," Pr.25:21. 6 Or, covereJh. Comp. I Pet. 
4:8 s See "Teaching of Jesus" on "Character," Lu. 2:21. 
i Hope, Pr. 23:18. 



By sending His Son — John 3:16; 14:21, 23; 15:13; 17-26- 
Rom. 5:6-8; 8:31, 32-, 38, 39; II Cor. 5:14-19; Gal. 2:20; Eph. 
1:3-14; 2:4-7; 3:1-6; Col. 1:19, 20; Titus 3:4-6; I John 4:7-19. 
For Israel — Ex. 6:7, 8; Deut. 4:37; 7:7, 8, 12, 13; 13:17; 23-5; 
Is. 43:3. 4; 63:9; Zeph. 3:17; Mai. 1:1-5; Rom. 11:28, 29. 

His Love manifested — Ex. 6:7. 8; 19:4; Lev. 25:42; •^(rl2- 
Deut. 28:9; 32:9-14; Is. 5:1-4; 49:14-23; 51:5-17; Jer. 31:1- 
14; " ■■ ■ 



:4. 

For Christ- Mt, 3:1 
:35; 5:20; 15:9; 17:2: 

Love for God. — Den 
Dsh. 23:11; Ju. 5:31 



:1S; 



; Mk. 



';7; Lu. 



;johSIZE 9V4 X 
INDIA Pi 
2460 P/ 



(1) The translators used the word "honored" as best conveying the meaiiin,.,^ 
of the original Greek word but give also in the margin the word "glorified." 

(2) The Greek word for "Miracles" is also translated "Powers." 

(3) Wherever the word "love" occurs in the Bible, iu the margin it will refer 
*? o ?V t'lf^ * "'-e topically arranged all the references in 
the Bible on "Love. 

(4) Many ancient manuscripts differ from the text from whi.h the American 
standard Revised Version was taken and in the margin these differences 
are given. The student thus has access to , the readings of the oldest 
manuscripts. 



13; 10 



I CORINTHIANS 
"the greatest of these is love.", prophesying 



14: 5 




"'know in part, and we "prophesy 
in part; 10 but when that which 
is "perfect is come, that which 
is in part shall be done away. 1 1 
Wli£i^j)l was a ' child, I spake as 
hild, I felt as a child, I 
^ thought as a child : now that I 
am become a " raaii, I have put 
away childish things. 12 For 
now we *see in a ^ mirror, 
^ ' ^darkly; but then "'"face to 
face: now I know in part; but 
then shall I know fully even as 
also I "was fully known. 13 
But now abideth ^ faith, 'hope, 
love, these three; and the 
^ greatest of these is love. 

IA/ '"'Follow after love; 
^-JT yet " " desire earnestly 
iritual cii]ts, but rather that 



je may "prophesx^ 



SCHJI.; have, Var. FIN. childish thi 
childishness, EDW. V. 12. in a — & 



Lit. the things of a child, Var. Fir 



GOU.; by means of, ScoU, FIN. SCHM. 
darlcly— 60 neariy DeW. 01. (lit. in a rid- 
dle) ; [see] by aid of a dark discourse (viz. 
the gospel revelation), Al. Me.; look upon 
a riddle (.viz. God's deep counsel of redemp- 
tion), Ev. perhaps, so Ril. nearly; in (the 
shape of) a riddle, FIN.; in a riddle, 
EDW. GOU.; riddle-like, SCHM. fully 
((ttice)— clearly, SCHM.; omit, R. V. 13. 



11:42; 8:2S; I Cor. 



69:36; 73:2o, 26; 97:10; Pr. 23:26; Lu, 
8:3; II Tlics.s. 3:5; I John 5:2-5. 

With all the Heart— Deut. 6:5; 11:13; 13:3; 
22:5; Mt. 22:37; Mk. 12:30; Lu. 10:27. 

Love of Christ. — Passeth Knowledge— Eph. 3:17-19. Con- 
straining— II Cor. 5:14. To the Father — John 14:31. For 
the Lost— Is. 40:11; Mt. 23:37; Mk. 3:5; 10:21; Lu. 19:10. 
For His Cliurch- Eph. 5:2, 25, 29. For John the Apostle- 
John 13:23; 19:26; 20:2; 21:7, 20. For Peter— Lu. 22:31-32. 
ForHis Disciples— John 14:21; 15:9-15; Rom. 8:35-39; Gal. 
2:20; II Thess. 2:13; I John 4:19; Rev. 1:5; 3:9, 19. For 
Laaarus, .Mary and Martha — John 11:5, 33-36. 

Love for Christ.— Mt. 10:37-39; 26:35; Mk. 16:10; Lu. 7:37- 
50; 23:27, 55, 56 ; 24:1-10; John 8:42; 10:17; 11:16; 13:37; 
14:21-24; 19:38-42; 20:1-18; 21:15-17; II Cor. 8:8, 9; Jas. 
1:12; I Pet; 1:8. 

For Brethren.— Pe. 33:1-3; Mai. 2:10; John 13:14, 15,34,35; 
15:12, 13, 17; Acts 21:13; 28:15; Rom. 12:14-16; 13:8; 14:19, 
21; 15:1-7; I Cor. 10:24; 16:22; Gal. 5:13-15; 6:1, 2, 10; Eph. 
4:2, 32; Phil. 2:2; I Thess. 3;12; 4:9, 10, 18; Col. 2:2; Philemon 
6; Heb. 13:1; I Pet. 1:22; 2:17; 3:8; 4:8; 3:10-19, 23; 4:7-11, 

i=or' Neighbprs.— Ex. 20:17; Job31;16-22; 42:11; Pr. 17:9; 
Mt. 7:12. 

As Thyself— Lev. 19:18; Mt. 19:19; 22:39, 40; Mk. 12:31, 
33; Lu. 10:25-37; Rom. 13:8-10; Gal. 5:14, 15; Jas. 2:8. 

For Friends.— tEx, 32:31, 32; I Sam. 16:21; 18:1, 16; 20:16, 
17; II Sam. 1:26; I Ki. 5:1; 18:4; Neh. 5:17-19; Pr. 17:17; 
18:24; 27:10, 17; Lu. 7:2-10; John 11:11; 15:13-15. 

Love for Enemies.— Ex. 23:4. 5; Pr. 24:17; Mt. 5:43, 44, 46; 
Lu. 6:27, 32, 35; Acts 7:60; 26:29; Rom. 12:20; I Cor. 13:5. 

For Sojourners.- Ex. 22:21; Lev. 19:34; 25:35; Deut. 10:18, 
19; II Ki. 6:21-23; Jer. 2:25. 
► Love for Children.— Gen. 22:2; 30:1; 44:20; II Sam. 1:23; 
" 18:33; Ps. 127:3-5; Is. 2:17-18; Mk. 10:13-10; Lu. 18:15-17; 
Titus 2:4. 

Man's Love for his Fellow-man.— Ps. 133:1-3; Mt. 25:34- 



2 For he 
a " tongue 
men, 



that' 'speaketh 

speaketh not untfc men, but 
unto " God; for nciman ^ under- 
standeth; but in the spirit he 
speaketh " mystdries. 3 But he 
that prophesieth/speaketh unto 
men ' " edificati/n, and " * ex- 
hortation, and Iconsolation. 4 
He that speakith in a tongue 
^ edifieth himsalf ; but he that 
prophesieth ^edpfieth the ' church. 
5 Now I wonld have you all 
speak with toAgues, but * rather 
that ye shoiAd prophesy: and 
greater is ht that prophesieth 
than he trat speaketh with 
tongues, ejcept he ' interpret, 
that the Aurch may receive 

now — i.e. this being so, Al. DeW. Ev. Me. 
Ol.Sta. VIN.MAS. GOU. SCHM.; i.e. in 
this life, Rii. Vo. abideth — i.e. continues 
in the life tolcome, Me. DeW. Ew. VIN. 
FIN. MAS, 
life, Chrys. 
Be. Chap. |4. — V. 1. desire earnestly- 
So GOU.; bJ zealous about, SCHM. stri\ 
L ptlV. Me. 01. Ccovet and che 



prophesy - 



onguc 

TVoi necessarily m a foreign tongue, Ev. 
so vs. 13, 14 and throughout; in the lan- 
guage of tongues, SCHM. V. 3. exhorta- 



See "Teaching 
of Paul " on 

8:1.' ' " ^ 
Cb. 16:14. 
V.39;ch. 
12:31. 

Sco "Choice," 



See "Gifts of 
the Spirit," 
John 14:16. 
See ch. 13 .2. 



Vs. 18, 19, 26, 
27; ch. 12:10, 
28, 30; 13:1. 
Tongues, Mk. 
16:17. 

God, Gen. 1:1, 
Gr. hearclh. 
Spirit, Job 
4:15. 
Mystery, 
I Cor. 15:51. 
Ch. 13:2. 



Edification, 
Rom. 14:19. 
Vs. 5, 12, 17 
26. 

Exhortation, 
Acts 11:23. 
Or, comfort. 
Consolation, 
Mt. 5:4. 



Gr. buildelh 
up. 

Church, Acts 



Num. 11:29 
Interpreta- 
tion, I Cor. 
12:10. 



40; Mk. 9:41; Lu. 6:3K35; I Cor. 10:24; Gal. 6:1, 2, 10; Eph. 
4:2, 32; Phil. 2:2; I Thess. 5:8, 13, r4; Jas. 1:12. 

Love of Alan and Woman.— Gen. 24:67; 29:18-20, 30, 32; 
34:3, 12; Ju. 16:4; Ruth Chaps. 2-4; I Sam. 1:5; II Sara. 13:1; 
IKi. 11:1; II Chr. 11:21; Esth. 2:17; Song of Sol. 1:4, 7; 2:4-8; 
3:2; 4:1, 7-10; 5:1, 9, 16; Hos. 3:1; John 11:5, 36; Eph. 5:25, 
28-31; Col. 3:19; Titus 2:4. 

Love for God cannot exist with: Love of the World — 
I John 2:15; Jas. 4:4. Love of Mammon — Mt. 6:24; Lu. 
16:13. Love of Self— Mt. 10:39; 16:25-26; Mk. 8:35-36; Lu. 
9:24-25; John 12:25-26. Love of Satan — Ps. 97:10: Mt. 4:10; 
Lu. 4:8; John 12:31; 14:30. Sinful Fear— II Tim. 1:7; I John 
4:18. Hatred of a Brother— Mt. 5:22; I John 3:10-16; 4:20- 
21. Love's Antagonism with Sin— Gen. 18:23-33; Ex. 20:5; 
Deut. 7:10-11;' 10:17-18; Ps. 27:5; 97:10; Is. 63:1-4; Hos. 
3:1; Mt. 23:37-39; 26:48-50; 27:3-5; Lu. 15:11-32; John 
13:21-27; I Cor. 4:21; Heb. 12:6; Rev. 2:2-6; 2:9-10; 2:13- 
16; 2:19-28; 3:1-5; 3:8-12; 3:15-21. 

■Love as an Active Principle.— John 14:15; GaL 2:19-20; 
Heb. 13:1-2; Jude 21; I John 2:5; 3:17; 4:8; II John 6. 

An Evidence of the New Life.— John 13:35; 14:23-24; Gal. 
2:19-20; Col. 1:4-8; I Thess. 1:3; II Tim. 1:7; I Jolui 3:14-17;. 
4:12-13. 

Love is the Fulfilling of the Law.— Mt. 22:40; Mk. 12:23; 
Lu. 10:28; Rom. 18:10; I Cor. 13:1-7; I Tim. 1:5. 

Love is the Fruit of the Spirit. — Mt. 7:16-20; Rom. 5:3-5; 
6:21-22; I Cor. 13:4-7; Gal. 5:22; Eph. 5:8-11; Col. 3:12-14. 

True Love Is without Hypocrisy. — Mt. 7:3-5; 22:16-22; 
Rom. 12:9; Eph. 6:24; I Pet. 1:22; II Pet. 2:15. 

The Measure of Love.— Mk. 12:33; John3:16; 13:34; 15:13; 
Rom. 8:35-39; I Cor. 2:2; II Tim. 4:8; I John 4:10-11. 

Love constrains to Unselfish Service. — I Cor. 4:9-13; 9:16- 
23; II Cor. 4:8-12; 5:14; Gal. 4:15; Phil. 4:12-13; Heb. 10:24; 
I Pet. 3:10. 

Love at its Topmost Height.— Mt. 26:6-13; John 13:34-35; 
15:12; I Cor. 10:14; Gal. 2:20; 6:14; Phil. 2:12-18; H Tim, 
4:6-8. ['■onl- 



and 



(5) The Cross-reference letter "e" refers to Acts 8:1 where there is an 
the foot of the page will be found the concordance on Paul. 

(6) The Cross-reference letter "r" refers to Luke 2:21 where there is an * and 
at the foot of the page will be found the concordance on Jesus and his 
Teachings. 

(7) "Ye may prophesy", Verse I, shows another rendering or tran.slation hy 
SCHM (P. M. Schniiedel). The preface of the Bible gives, in full, the 
names of three hunddred of the leading translators and commentators of 
the Old and New Tcqtament, whoso various translations occur on each page 
of the te.xt. 



THE i * ^ . ilCAL SEMINARY OF THE REFORMED CHURCH 
IN THE UNITED STATES 

LANCASTER. PA. 



To whom it may concern: 

The "CROSS-REFERENCE BIBLE, Variorum 
Edition" is one the most important modern editions of the 
Bible. Among its outstanding features are:- (1) its text is 
the American Revised Version; (2) A double reference, first 
from the text to the marp^in and topics in the footnotes and 
second from the footnote topics to the margin and text;' (3) 
Variorum readings from other manuscripts not adopted by the 
American Revisers, and variorum readings or translations from 
the original language by various scholars; (4) A remarkable 
Topical Analysis of the contents of the Bible, made available 
for practical use in the cross-reference system; (5) An out- 
line study of all books of the Bible, and also an outline 
study of more than three hundred of the leading persons men- 
tioned in the Bible. 

Among these features the Variorum Read- 
ings are of the utmost significance because they present to 
the student the best constructive re:^u.l,ts and modern textual 
criticism of the Bible in English readings. Equally signi- 
ficant are the "Various Renderings" because they bring the 
translations from the original language of the leading Biblical 
scholars of the world. 

The CROSS-REFERENCE BIBLE aims to pre- 
sent in English the best results of the world's Biblical scholar- 
ship concerning the text of the Bible. It should appeal to 
ministers, Sunday School Teachers, and the general Bible reader. 
The Editor-in-chief says in the preface, "Our only object hap 
been to index the contents of the Bible as to put them within 
the reach of the masses". 

^ „ , '^'^ freely recommend this important 
edition of the Bible to any student of God's word. 

Respectfully yours. 



Professor of Practical "Theology 



(P. S. PASS THIS ALONG TO A FRIEND) 





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On Romain Rolland 

[The friends and admirers of Eomain Holland, 
from different parts of the world, greeted this friend 
of Humanity on the occasion of ;his 60th birth-day 
(January, 1926) by pubiishing their thoughts and 
sentiments in a magnificent volume Liber Amicoriim 
Romain FoUand (Rotaffel-Yerlag, Zurich-Leipzig). 
Extracts are given below from some of the striking 
utterences of the contemporaries of Romain Rolland. 
Kalidas Nag]. 

From Albert Einsteix — 
Honoured Master, 

With my fleshly eyes I have seen you 
once only, fresh under the impression of the 
outbreak of the European war — a lonesome 
observer, suffering inexpressibly with your 
fellow-beings, oppressed with the conscious- 
ness of not being able to bring forth light 
that would redeem all. That through your 
sublime art and through your words you 
could influence the finely organised souls, 
was never a consolation to you ; you wanted 
to help the human creatures who were tor- 
mented with the miseries of their own 
creation. 

The raw mass of people move and act 
under the influence of dull passions, to which 
they and the State that incorporates them 
are slaves. In their madness they rage against 
one another and drive each other to catastro- 
phy ; they, however, do not suffer to any 
great extent from inner conflict. The few, 
however, who do not partake in the feelings 
of raw humanity, and who, uninfluenced by 
these passions, cling to the ideal of human 
love, carry a heavier burden. If they do not 
indulge in acts against which their conscience 
rebels,and do not remain cowardly silent over 
what they see and feel, they are expelled 
from human society and are treated as lepers. 
You, honoured master, have not kept silent, 
but you have fought, suffered and defied, like 
* a great soul. 

I The present age, so shameful for us 
i Europeans, has shown that intellectual athletics 
' is no protection against littleness of soul and 
barbarous sensibilities. I do not believe that 
\ noble human dispositions thrive more in the 



Universities and Academies than in the work- i 
ing places of dumb unknown human beings. 

To-day the congregation of those who see 
in you a radiating ideal, greet you. It is a 
community of lonely individuals who are 
immune from the epidemic of hate, who 
work for the abolition of war as a first step 
in the moral convalescence of the people — 
which to them appears as incomparably more 
important than the special interests of their 
own particular state or nation. 

From T. G. Masaryk (President of the 
Repiihlic of C^echo- Slovakia) — 

It is a great pleasure to me that I have 
been allotted a place in the Liber Amicorum 
Romain Rolland. I have known Romain 
Rolland before the war ; his Europeanism was 
sympathetic to me, and I was attiactedby his^ 
rousing call to the intellectual Europe to a 
heroic life. 

As the war broke out, and I decided at 
Geneva, the place of Rolland's residence, to 
join in it, I reconsidered once more the 
ideas of Tolstoy and Rolland against it. All 
the fighting nations, it seemed to me, had res- 
ponded to Rolland's call to heroic action ; heroism 
was opposed to heroism, heart against heart, 
intellect against intellect — and in this lay to 
me the tragedy of the World War. 

After the war was over, it was my piivilege 
to come to know Rolland personally ; while 
in Switzerland I sought out the recluse of 
Yilleneuve. 

Every cultured person has a number of 
chosen spirits out of the world literature with 
whom he forms an inner circle of friends. 
Rolland is one of my authors and authorities, 
with whom I ani in intellectual inter- 
course. I believe, therefore, I can claim a 
small place in the Liber Amicorum. 

[ Translated from the original German hij Pro- 
fessor Dr. D. M. Rose, Ph. D. (Berlin). ] 



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him by whom we see. Our mind being finite 
how can we know the Infinite. As God is 
infinite we have to go beyond thouj^ht, be- 
yond reason, beyond human consciousness to 
reaHze Him. Eemore that which prevents 
us from seeing Him. Go beyond thought 
and personal self, tlien you are in God. 
Rituals and philosophy so long as they are a 
help to spiritual progress which consists in 
denying one's self or personality, are neces- 
sary elements in Religion. Concrete forms 
of devotioniand external forms when they 
cease to achieve the end form positive ob- 
stacles to spiritual progress. Provided the 
end is secured no matter the m.eans. The 
external forms of worship vary as they should 
to suit the different stages of mental and 
moral calibre. 



language adopted by them. Faith and per- 
ception are simultaneous. FaitlTis^eep con- 
viction not arising out of reason but out of 
perception. It leaves no room for doubt or 

9. God's Kingdom — Being in matter we 
must first conquer it as long as we cannot 
avoid it. So Gita teaches men intended in 
matter how to associate with it yielding not 
to its temptations, how to fight with matter 
not avoiding it, and how to become Lord of 
matter not becoming its servant. The 
highest conceit of man is the attempt to 
know God. Men of matter can never know 
God. Men of mind pretend to have under- 
stood God. But it is men of spirit only that 
can know what God is. God is spirit. It is 
spirituality that is to be discerned. Rise 
above matter : you will have a glimpse of 
God's kingdom.— P. V.S. 



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MUSIC OF THE 



FUTURE. 

jb . 

— c in VC. 

Orpheus ; or. The Music of thJ: Future. By 
W. J. Turner. (Kegan Paul. 2s. 6d. net.) 



The great problem presented by «yt is the 
OToblem as to whether Values are are not 
inherent in nature. In 9ther words, can a 
work of art give us knowledge about reality or 
must it do something entirely different ? With 
the definite formulation of the scientific out- 
look on the world, this question has been re- 
garded as settled. For the scientific picture 
of reality does not find it necessary to men- 
tion values at all. The scie ntific world outlook 
is built up out of conc^Tions g uch as mass, 
f orce, &c., which make no reference to values . 
And It is generally supposed that wnat does 
not enter into the scientific picture does not 
belong to reality. Everything else is merely 
expressive of the peculiarities of the human 
constitution — in the last resort, of our biolo- 
gical needs. This view, although widely 
accepted, rests on no satisfactory basis, 1[^ere 
is no a priori reason to believe that the scienti- 
fic ^utl ook mc l udes the whole ot reality^ 
IiideedTThere is very good reason to suppose 
that it does not. Recent progress in science 
itself makes it probable that the old scientific 



abstractions are insutticient, and also shows 
that the s cientific scheme ma y be both self- 
c onsistent arid partial. 

With the breakdown of scientific materialism % 
it becomes possible to discuss art in a more 1 
intelligent manner. We no longer have to 
deny or explain away our 'most indubitable 
experiences in order to fit a philosophy which 
denies that they can be what they seem to be. 
The poet is no longer bound to believe that 
his perceptions are illusory, and that they 
testify to nothing but the peculiarities of his 
neural organization. The case of the musi- 
cian is rather different. Very little of the best 
music is concerned to convey perceptions. Its 
purpose is to depict inner experiences. It 
throws no light, therefore, on the nature of 
" external" reality. The problem of what, 
music actually does do is very interesting and \ 
very difficult. Mr. Turner defines music as I 
" the imagination of love," a phrase which I 
evidently requires elucidation. It appears, [ 
liowever, that Mr. Turner uses the word I 
" love " to designate what some other writers / 
call the " life-force." He is then saying that/ 
music, like everything else, is an embodiment/ 
of the life-force. His philosophy is, however,] 
obscure, probably owing to the fact that he I 
uses such words as " life " and " death " in an 
unusual way. 



We find Mr. Turner clearer when he comes 
to actual musical criticism — when, for instance, 
he tells us why Beethoven is the greatest of 
all composers. " With Beethoven," he says, 
" a new element came into music, an element of 
such sublimity and beauty that its advent into 
the world of imagination is comparable in im- 
portance with that of sex in the physical 
world." And later he tells us that this new 
element is " t he imagination of a love tran - 
scending both "the sacred and the profane? ' 
In Beethoven's music, more than anywhere else, 
is the evidence that there is the good," the 
" noble." the " spiritual," the sublime." 
Such words in other contexts sound like hum- 
bug, but, as applied to Beethoven's music, they 
are descriptive of realities. *' In the midst of 
futility and inanity, in the midst of despera- 
tion and despair there sounds the music of 
Beethoven which says without Ijombast or 
credo : ' This is not the way the world ends.' " 
And why do we listen ? Why does this music 
compel our assent and, in compelling our 
assent, inspire us with such a passion of love 
and reverence for the composer ? Whence 
comes it that Beethoven's utterances inspire 
in us so unshakable a conviction of their 
truth so that, as Mr. Turner says, " not all the 
corrosive acid of the most powerful intellect and 
the profoundest scepticism can burn through 
them into any leaden substratum " ? Well, | 
Mr. Turner gives us one reason when he says 
that we realize in Beethoven's music that he 
was without any of the world's illusions. The 
disillusionment of our modern poets is felt 
to be a feeble and superficial thing compared 
with what Beethoven passed through. This 
man who, in his late work, reveals the peace 
that passes all understanding included every- 
thing which, in our experience, makes that 
peace impossible. Here we have the key to 
Beethoven's influence. We are conscious with 
him, as we are with no other artist, that we are 
in the presence of one whose experience is 
more comprehensive, more profound, more 
deeply felt than our own and that, moreover, 
this experience is co-ordinated and unified at 
a level beyond what we can reach. We are in 
the presence of a higher consciousness. To 
listen to Beethoven's music is to live in his 
light, a light in which our problems are 
answered or are seen not to exist. Does Beet- 
hoven's music then, as he claimed, communi- 
cate knowledge ? If it does, we certainly cannot 
say what we have learned. We could only 
communicate our knowledge by playing Beet- 
hoven's music. It is certainly not scientific 
knowledge, and we can define knowledge so 
that no other kind exists. But the question 
is not really important, for even scient ific 
knowledge is not valuable for its own sake. 



\ 



n 



derives its value trom the spiritual adjustments 



that fo llow upon it It is one strand in our total 
experience, find a not very important strand. 
For the most perfect adjustment we know, 



based on the most compreiiensive experience, 
we have to turn to Beethoven's music. The 
scientist's view of the world, no more than the 
dipsomaniac's, can disturb that tremendous 
synthesis. And as a revelation of the final 
outlook of the spirit of man, when all relevant 
experience has been assimilated, his music will 
endure as long as man is as we know him. 
On this rock, as Mr. Turner has felt, we can 
build our faith. This is Beethoven's import- 
ance, not only in the world of music, but in 
the whole world of art, and in the lives of 
men. It is the great merit of Mr. Turner's 
little book that he insists on music being judged 
as a revelation. It is from this point of view" 
that he estimates, very justly, the values of 
composers who, as musicians, are equally 
great. 



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V 



LINKING SCIENCE AND 
INDUSTRY 



Edited by Henry C. Mclealf, Balti- 
more, Williams and Wilkins Companv, 
1925, 3.30 dol. 

This book is one of the v jlumes i" 
the ^' Human Kr'?ri'ions Serio? " arvi 
in the words of <he introdaction is 
Intended to be co-Operative inter- 
change of thought on the messages 
which modern humanistic science has 
to give to indui-tiial administratioTi. 

The chapters on "Man a'ld Men" 
by Professor Keyser, "Ir.tc 'llgerco 
Versus Eeason" by Jamc.^ Harvey Ro- 
binson, ''Nature « Administi.ition Me- 
thods" by Prorp.ssor Pailcn, an 1 
"Periodic Planes 'jf Creation ' by Bj- 
bert B. Wolf carry the readpr into the 
larger impl'catio^ - and re! •tionship':: 
of humanity and of creative labour. 
A number of references in the book 
look toward linkinc: science and reli- 
gion as well as sf^ienee and industry. 



Of particular intciest is jNfr. Wolf's 
contribution, the cio.«ing paracr^raphs of 
which are of sui^h unusu-al s.-^nificanco 
as to justify quotation. 

"An irresistib'f and logic J destiny 
is compelling us to recognize :hat the 
cren^^ve principL' which is lVe cause 
of all material phenomena ic, in the 
lart anaVs's, sp^rit^ia^; and it augurs 
well for the future *hat modt^rn science 
with its vast accumulation of recorded 
experiences is ritidly extenaing it? 
fieVI into the higher realms • f life. 

"Man's age-long search for p^oof 
of the fundamenlal spiritual unity of 
life wiP continuf'. and there 's eve'y 
reason to believe that the r-^markable 
svnth'^^i^^ of thought taking place in 
tho fieMs of sci'*'ue, philos 'phy and 
religion will make man ^s desire fpr 
inoral and spiritual growth his domin- 
ant motive in lif:^ " 



Surely all will agree" Wfth this 
ancient Egyptian that nothing should 
be taken from nor added to a teach- 
ing like the following: "If thou hast 
to do with a disputer while he is 
In his anger, do not treat him with 
contempt because thou art not of 
the same opinion. Do not be pro- 
voked with him when he is wrong; 
away with that! He is fighting 
against his very self; do not ask him 
to flatter thy views." 

These excerpts from the "Precepts 
of Ptah-Hotep" were selected from 
Professor Howard Osgood's transla- , 
tion of the French version by M. j 
Philippe Virey published i^. 1847, 
with the exception of the following, j 
which is from Mr. Gunns transla- ) 
tlon: "Cause not fear among men. 
... It is another that attalneth by 
giving unto him that hath not. Never 
hath that which men have prepared 
for come to pass; for what God hath 
commanded, even that thing cometh 
to pass. Live, therefore, In the 
house of kindliness, and men shall 
come and give gifts of themselves." 

Etiquette was held to be a part of 
wisdom in that ancient day : "If thou 
art among persons who are sitting | 
down to eat at the lyuse of one 
greater than thyself, take what is 
given thee,' bowing low. (Compare 
with Proverbs xxiii.) Look at what 
is before thee, bowing profoundly; 
but do not stare at it; do not look at 
It frequently; he is blameworthy who 
breaks this rule. ... If thou* aim to 
have polished manners, do not ques- 
tion him whom thou meetest. Con- 
verse with hira alone so as not to 
annoy him. Do not dispute with him 
until thou has allowed him time to 
impregnate his mind with the subject 
of the conversation. If he display his 
ignorance, and if he give thee an 
opportunity to put him to shame, 
rather than that, treat him with con- 
Sideration; do not keep pushing him 
on. ... do not reply in a crushing' 
manner; do not finish him." 

The following precepts surely, 
need "nothing taken away, nothing 
added," to make them useful in our 
own day: "if thou art a leader to 
decide the condition of a large num- 
ber of men, seek the best way. . . . 
Justice is great, unchangeable, as- 
sured; it has not been disturbed 
since the time of Osiris. To put an 
obstacle in the way of the laws, is 
to open the way before violence." 

"If thou art one of those who 
carry messages from one great man 
to another, keep exactly to that 
which he has enjoined upon thee. 



Beware of altering in speaking tne 
unpleasant things which one great 
man addresses to another; he who 
distorts the fidelity of his message 
by respecting only what is pleasing 
in the words of any man, great or 
small, is a detestable being." 

While here Ptah-Hotep. with broad 
strokes. portrays characteristics 
which probably contributed to make 
him "the first of those whose work 
jhath made them noble": "If thou 
I hast the position of empire, listen 
ito the discourse of the petitioner. 
Do not ill-treat him; that would dis- 
' courage him. Do ©ot say to him: 
1 'Thou hast already told that.' . . . 

The wav to obtain a true explanation 
^ is to listen with kindness." . . . "If 
' thou desirest thy conduct to be sood 
and kept from all evil, beware of all 
fits of bad temper. This is a sad 
maladv which leads to discord, and 
there is no more life at all for one 
who falls Into it; ... it contains all 
wickedness, it encloses all injuries. 
When a man takes justice for his 
rule, walks in her ways, and dwells 
with her, there is no room left for 
bad temper." 

In conclusion, we quote these beau- 
tiful precepts that speak to us across 
five thousand years: "Love for the 
work they do brings men near to 
God. Therefore compose thy face 
even in the midst of trouble, so that 
peace may be with thee. . . . The 
gifts of affection are worth more 
than the offerings themselves. . . . 
May the love that thou dost feel pass 
into the hearts of those who love 
thee; may the people become loving 
and obedient." F. P. 



THE REVOLT CF MODERN 
YOUTH 




By Boa B. LindseyTJ Xo\v York, 
Bcni and Liveriglit, 1925. dol. 3.00. 

JiKlgc Lindsev bolieves the revolt of 
youth to-day is a deeper and more 
significant thing chan the proverbial- 
protest of the young against the com- 
placency of the .:lder generation. It 
is a definite turning in the tortuous 
path humanity has "been treating since 
human intelligence began its faltering 
course. 

From the pages of his book stands 
out Judge Lindsey > fine acliievcmeni 
in understanding — understanding of 
the ignorant, ardent, bevrildered 
young. Untaught by Ihose who should 
know and help, the young are tram, 
melled by the cov^ardice and evasion 
that has preceded them, Particular- 
ly is this true in matters of sex, of 
which stu-pidity. prudery and mental 

dQubl,e-dealing have made a subter 
ranenn labyrinth where high spirited, 
glowing young things must find their 
ways without a clue. Those r»^ho should 
love and protect them will not trust 
them with a clu^e and yet ''t,he truth |i 
is— and every child knows it — that ji 
children think and act quite as logical- < 
ly, and much more honestly, than ad- 
ults; and that their mistakes com.^ 
from their limit e I knowledge of 
facts." 

And of those who blunder and pain- 
fully stumble, the conventional mind 
knows nothing, ard yet their number i 
is overwhelming. C/f them Jadge Lind- 
sey says: range daily through an 
undei-world of human thought and ac- 
tion whose way i' iiid, and whose very 
existence is not quite believed in by 
work-a-day, rr.atter-of-fact persons, 
even though they could find it all be- 
neath the ehoppv surf nee of their own 
existences if th y would but take an 
honcut look. There, by long experi- 
ence, I have learned how I may 
breathe and move freely in sympathe- 
tic communion with life that is beauti- 
ful, shy, abundan^^, and often savage- 
ly primitive. 

"One picks ©r.'; 's way through an 
unearthly, sometimes a terrifying, 
twilight. One wr.nders down long 
vistas, shadowy and lovely, that arJ 
the inner lives o2 p'^ople. It is ho'y 
ground. 



I "Ways of judgment are d fforent i: 
this dreamlike coT.:jtry of ray explora- 
tions. Even though one be a 'Judg3 
he does not, as in our outer, superficial 

[world, say glibly of This, *I: is good'. 

land of That, 'It is bad.' I have learn- 
ed, I think, not to judge anybody any 
more for anything, and to call nothing 
common or unclean. I claim no spe- 
cial virtue in thi=!. When one disco 

( vers at first hand the truth nbout peo- 
ple, one has no choice. The human 
spirit is beyond human judgment." 

The great majority of the sex de- 
linquents with w'lom he lias dealt are 
chiMren wiio have reached physical ma- 
turity before thc-y have attained men. 
tal stature. Th;' child mi.)d is le^t 
to struggle alone with the strongest 
force of nature — vnd almost .nvariablv 
in partial or complete ignor-mce. 

The book is mu. h more than a case 
study. It pre-cnts a philosophy 
founded on exxjcrier.ce — f'»r Judge 
Lindsey finds hi.^ method of under- 
standing and confidence supremely sa- 
tisfying in its effect of righiing the 
young lives which come under its in- 
fluence. He says: "Intolerance is 
founded on our conviction that we are 
running things, that our decisions and 
opinions are important, and that ruin 
will follow if somebody else who thinks 
less correctly be permitted io make ti 

few mistakes 

"Belief is the natural and instii?c- 
live thing; the religious ir-^.tinct is as 
deep rooted and valid as the sex ins- 
tinct. It is becaupe I be'ieve this 
that I stand reaci" to adventure wit:i 
Life, to take cha!:ces with p.-ople, and 
to stop worrying about what will hap- 
pen to the human race if a 'wave of 
looseness' hits it. Its life is a pro- 
grcs.'i'on. The Force that makes it 
so is stronger than ou.r follies can ever 
be: and it turns even these to ac- 
count." 

It is a part o'f Judge Linds- y's creed 
that there is nothi^ig in the world, that 
is not a legitimate subject i'or honcsi 
discussion — yes, even for dishonest 
discussion. I wouldn 't shackle a?iy 
kind of discussion whatever. I'd 
leave the truth to survive by its owir 
strength, as it infallibly will." 

E. T. 




pounded by the authors have a universal value 
and may be applied with profit to the under- 
standing of the thoughts and actions of youth 
all over the world. For youth is in revolt every- 
where and demands a new life and liberty to 
fulfil the fresh aspirations surging within its 
heart. There is a common ferment of freedom 
in the mind of the younger generation in all 
lands. The particular sphere of its manifestation 
may differ according to the political, social, 
economic or religious requirements of the several 
countries ; but there is a striking similarity in 
the main current of thought, emotion and 
methods of action pursued by young folk every- 
where. Therefore it is much the same lesson 
that students of social, political and religious 
reform all over the world have to learn so far as 
the standards of revolt set up by the younger 
generation are concerned. 

Judge Lindsey, the chief author of the book 
under review, is specially fitted for the task 
before him by his intimate personal contact 
with the young men and women of America 
during his 25 years* life as Judge of the Juvenile 
court of Denver. In that capacity he has 
acquired such a thorough grasp of youth 
psychology, the inner springs of juvenile thought 
and action that his observations on questions 
concerning the conduct of youth carry a unique 
weight and importance. The Judge does not 
mince his words in exposing the ugliest sores of 
American social life. Courageously facing all 
misrepresentations of his objects in uttering the 
whole truth, he gives the reader a realistic and 
truthful picture of the looseness of sexual life 
and relationships, particularly among the 
younger generation of America. The revelations 
in the volume are highly shocking to all advo- 
cates and lovers of the life of Brahmacharya in 
educational institutions and should serve as an 
impressive warning to those of us in the East 
who would blindly follow the West in its old, 
exploded socio-educational systems and ideals. 

The major portion of the book is filled with 
stories from actual life, gathered by Judge 
Lindsey at first hand, illustrating how the 
prevailing social codes and conventions in 
America work havoc on its youth and how 



the revolt of the latter is an instinctive re- 
action against the system of artificial taboos, 
social superstitions, intolerances and hypocrisies 
which the elders blindly impose on the 
young. In the remaining portion the authors 
make a strong plea for the exercise of reason, 
sympathy and understanding in the solution of 
the several problems concerning sexual life 
— problems which are violently knocking for 
solution at the door of society through the rebel 
hands of youth. 

A few facts and figures furnished in the book 
may help to give the reader an idea of the grave 
situation that threatens American youth. Speak- 
ing about Denver — which is not an abnormally 
immoral place, but represents the average Ameri- 
can society — Judge Lindsey informs us that of the 
young men and women who go to parties and 
dances and ride together in automobiles, more 
than 90 per cent indulge in hugging, kissing and 
other such small liberties with each others 
persons. At least 50 per cent of these youths, 
we are told again, do not confine themselves to 
these minor liberties, but go further and indulge 
in other sexual improprieties which are dangerous 
to the health of the youths. Yet another point 
to be noted is that 15 to 25 per cent of those who 
begin with hugging and kissing eventually " go 
the limit." This does not, the author adds, 
mean in most cases either promiscuity or fre- 
quency, but it happens. This is a most 
conservative estimate of the facts. For Judge 
Lindsey says that he has at hand figures which 
indicate with certainty that for every case ol 
sex-delinquency discovered, a very large 
number completely escape detection. Speaking ol 
boys and girls separately, the Judge states tha^ 
50 percent of high-school boys have sex* 
experience by the time they finish the school. 
As for girls, we are told, that one high-school 
girl in every ten have their feet set on more or 
less perilous paths and are in need of guidance 
and counsel. These figures include only the agei 
14, 15, 16 and 17 and not the higher ages where 
the delinquency is greater. 

While narrating the numerous stories of sex- 
delinquency and domestic tragedy that came 
within his knowledge Judge Lindsev makes manv 



sane observation on^the social, biological, 
[psychological and moral significance of the revel- 
ations which deserve to be carefully noted by all 
jwho have anything to do with the education and 
kip-bringing of youth,;<^he book makes a most 
informing analysis of the factors that have con- 
tributed to the failure of the home, the school 
and the church in preserving the health and 
[morality of youth. The cure for the wave of 
jexual looseness that is threatening American 
[society, in the opinion of Judge Lindsey, does 
not consist in merely denouncing the lapses of 
Ithe younger generation or enforcing any rigid 
[code of morals. He thinks that the prevailing, 
traditional, outwardly imposed code of taboos 
[and prohibitions should be replaced by a voluntary 
[adopted code of genuine internal restraints, in- 
telligently enforced on themselves by the young 
len and women. Government of the young 
through Fear should give place to a policy of 
governing them through an enlightened freedom 
[and sense of responsibilities. Such a voluntary 
:ode of internal restraints can be cultivated accord- 
ing to the Judge, only an education of the right 
type which will place before the young all the 
:nowledge about sex and remove from their 
|minds ignorance and fear which are at the bottom 
)f their anti-social revolts. The authors condemn 
the average American home and school as places 
[where age-old insanities are forced down the 
throats of the young. The lot of the children 
[brought up and educated in these places is 
likened by them to that of " a sane person set 
lown in a lunatic asylum run by adults for 
ladults. " The remedy for the prevailing evils 
ind abuses, in the opinion of the authors, is real 
iducation and real religion in the light of the 
truth of science. *' Truth, if we will but spread 
It over the f-ace of the world, can save us. Not 
[a blind clinging to minor conventions, not a 
:linging to the sterile past, but the free spread 
:hiefly through schools, of scientific information 
that would give every young person going out 
into the world a comprehension of the laws on 
[which the life of the race and the life of the 
individual are founded. Give us that and the 
[race will surely achieve a great destiny. But fail 
to give it, keep us in the bonds of superstitioui 



Ignorance, afraid of a lot of hell-born shadows- 
and we shall tread the path of racial deterioration 
on which our feet may even now be perilously 
set." 

In these words Judge Lindsey utters the warn- 
ing that adults who insist that Youth must follow 
no new thing but implicitly follow old traditions 
are doing their best to destroy the race. He 
interprets the Revolt of Youth against the blud- 
geon of ignorance and superstition with which 
the elders are trying to suppress them, as a sigr 
of the native ability of the race to find its sou; 
and to live in harmony with the laws of God. Ir 
another place in a passage burning with righteous 
indignation the Judge condemns the stupid tyran- 
ny of parents and teachers in imparting to the 
young the old-world tooth-and-claw philosophy 
and all the age-old hypocrisies they live by with- 
out acknowledging them to themselves. Judged 
by their fruits, he considers the average 
American home and the school as the abode ol 
insufferable vulgarians and bigots who try to 
bring up their children through hollow and 
second-hand exhortations and stupid commands. 
/He says : " To them the art of hypocracy has 
always been as the breath of life. More — it is a 
cloak which protects their white and tendei 
hides from the gusty winds of Reality. They 
can't understand that human beings can live 
without it. They think pretence is necessary tc 
their authority. Later, when the child discover* 
the pretence, at just about the time when he is 
suffering the physical and spiritual growing 
pains of adolescence, the sham authority crum- 
bles and he is left with nothing to stand on save 
what he can fashion for himself. But builded 
in simple honesty, the foundation would have 
held solid as a rock." 
^ Proceeding the Judge describes the results ol 
this adult folly on modern youth which he com- 
pares to a boat with no properly trained pilot, 
no point of reference and no clear cut purpose. 
" It lives in the present and for the moment, 
finding no stimulus in the thought of a goal 
ahead. It is emotionally unbalanced and want- 
ing in nervous and mental stability. Therefore 
it is crazy for excitement and averse to disci 
lined effort ; and it automatically and instinc 



' tively avoids contacts with life which are not 
'superficial and easy." The responsibility for 
driving the younger generation into such a sad 
state the Judge has no hesitation in laying on 
the shoulders of the adult generation which 
according to him, is still trying to force upon 
youth a body of traditions, customs, laws and 
forms of authority in which it does not itself 
any longer believe and by which its own inner 
life is no longer dominated. The process by 
which youth is spoilt is also described by the 
Judge in a striking passage which shows to us 
his penetrating insight into and complete 
mastery over the psychology of youth. He also 
puts a good deal of blame on the parrot system 
of education which helps only to make young 
people into " rubber stamps, slaves of mass 
sentiment " like their elders. He observes very 
correctly, " However much youngsters may 

Iseem to depart from the old traditions of thought 
and conduct, they nevertheless do act and think 
consistently and strictly within the limits of 
I certain shifting codes and traditions which they 
have created for themselves. They dress alike, 
look alike, so far as they can, and act alike. 
1 They dread being different from their fellows; 
and the pack will set upon an individual in it 
' who does not run true to form. This is as true 
among our youth as it is among the older 
generation. However much youth may flaunt 
its independence, therefore, it has little genuine 
liberty, little real emancipation. By its depar- 
tures en-masse, from ancient standards, it has 
doubtless achieved some real progress ; but its 
individual members have simply jumped from 
one form of slavery into another. License is 
bondage. Liberty, on the contrary is a free] 
obedience to laws more compelling and difficult) 
than human law and far more exacting. Youthi 
i unhelped by any wisdom but its own, often con-J 
I fuses the two." 

i The author thus explains how youth inherits 
from its elders the intolerance of freedom which 
the latter consistently practice. He then exposes 
-he evil effects of such intolerance, of such com- 
pulsion on individuals not to be individuals, but to 
onform to a cut and dry pattern of conduct and 
lorality. He shows how the impulse of fear 



which is brought mto play by such compulsion 
exacts in the child a silent, ill-defined hostility 
which later on manifests itself in " the deliberate 
defiance, aggressive independence, jeering re- 
bellion and genuinely anti-social conduct." 

/' Government through fear ", he says, "produces 
the impulse to do the other thing — in secret, if 
need be. It rivets the child's attention on the 
negatives of life. It makes of them an over- 
powering suggestion, it creates an overpowering 
impulse to turn them into positives, till the 
" Thou Shalt not " of tradition becomes the 
rebellious and unreasoning " I will " of modern 
youth." That is the genesis of the Revolt. We 
are now, in the view of the author, at the parting 
of the ways in the business of governing the 
young, the choice being between Government 
through fear on the one hand and government 
through reasonable counsel, through conviction, 
and through the art of imposing responsibility 
on youth, on the other. In the chapters that 
follow. Judge Lindsey applies the above principle 
of Government to the regulation of the sex- 
impulse in youth and lays down the rule that 
the crude sex-hunger, like food-hunger, should be 
governed and controlled not by legal fiat and 
moral compulsion, but educated wisdom, common 
sense, self-control and the good taste of the 
individual. He then shows by giving instances 
from actual life that such self-control is possible 
to young persons provided they are completely 
informed in time about sex-matters and given a 
healthy perspective, a properly focussed mentsrf 
and spiritual vision. His conclusion formed 
after much thought, observation and experienc( 
is that the only thing capable of effectivelj 
controlling the sex-life is an educated, delicati 
preference for that sort of conduct whose actuat 
ing motive might be safely adopted as a saft 

prule for universal human conduct. He therefor 
pleads for " an intelligent, voluntary discri 
minating loyalty on the part of the individual 
to motives and standards which he honestly an( 
sincerely considers valid." Such an individual 
we are told, would never rashly or wantonly d 
part from the way of the majority. But he woul< 
be at liberty to do so if the reasons for such > 
course seemed really right and adequate to hiir 



With such liberty of action, " Judge LindseyN 
observes, "many would doubtless make mistakes; 
some of them would make fatal mistakes. Hence 
they would need to become accustomed to their 
liberty by degrees. But the final result would be 
to strengthen the moral fibre of the race and to 
give to our social life a stability it lacks at 
present. " Further on he says : " I am not say- 
ing there is no peril in freedom ; I am merely 
insisting that, in the long run, freedom will be a 
less perilous thing to the race than the excess of 
law and custom by which we now make ourselves 
morally weak, flabby and soft." From these 
words of the author it should not be thought that 
he holds that no sort of restraints on individual 
liberty are necessary. He does not think that 
the world has reached such an ideal state and 
admits that society has to prescribe certain 
others. He however adds : " What we have so^ 
far failed to comprehend is that there should be 
as little of this verbatim business as possible. 
Also that there should be in the public mind a 
clear-cut, educated conception of the value of 
originality, of initiative and of the impulse which 
some individuals have to be different in thought, 
word, and deed and from their fellows. Progress 
comes through persons who are never satisfied ' 
and who want to think critically and to do things 
differently, often in violation of customs held by 
the majority to be sacrosanct. The liberty of 
■these human variants to shock the conforming 
majority should be very large. " 

After enunciating these general principles 
which should guide the reformer in reconstruct- 
ing the socio-moral codes and conventions, the 
authors proceed to discuss in detail the several 
questions arising therefrom, the extent of personal 
liberty to be allowed in matters of sex, the 
eform of the institution of marriage in the light 
of its failure to regulate sex-life, satisfy the needs 
f American humanity or bring happiness to 
American homes. Here also some of the facts 
and figures provided in the book reveal a shock- 
ing state of affairs in the domestic life of 
America. The marriage-muddle, we are told, is 
responsible for the fact that there are, at least, 
fifty thousand girls in New York living with men 
who are not their husbands ; girls who should 



become mothers and don't dare to have child 
because of the attitude society would take towa 
them. It is, again, the marriage muddle, cc 
bined with the deliberately fostered ignorai 
about birth control, that is responsible for pro 
bly at least a million and a half abortions f 
formed in America every year. 

The authors devote more than ten Chapters 
the book to discussion of the problems 
marriage, free love, unconventional unio 
illegitimate children, birth control and otl 
allied questions. He advocates a new freed( 
in the relation of the s^ces, a freedom whi 
would not mean Free Love, nor the destructi 
of the institution of marriage, but is based 
" an extension and alteration of its prerogati> 
within lines that would permit a hitherto i 
known measure of human freedom and hap 
ness. " As regards the details of the autho 
constructive proposals for reform we have 
space or necessity to go into in the course o; 
review. Those who feel sufficiently interest 
in them should go in for a copy of the book its 
which, we have no hesitation in saying, is fu 
worth its price and deserves to be read throu, 
by all students of social reform especially 
India for we are now passing through a stage 
transition and witnessing a slow but sure brea 
ing down of our social institutions under t 
stress of new forces. A perusal of a book, li 
the one under review, dealing with social pi 
blems in the West should help us in this critic 
stage of our social evolution to avoid many 
the pitfalls that the people of Europe ai 
America have fallen into and from which th 
are now trying to get out with so much difficull 
One striking feature in Judge Lindse^ 
method in dealing with the whole problem 
sex life and social reform is his implicit rega 
for truth and faith in its inherent power 
survive by its own strength. He is conscio 
that the established forces in America, as 
other countries of the world, are bending the 
energies to the suppression of truth. But ] 
refuses to be a party to the conspiracy of silem 
and hypocrisy which is formed in order to mai 
tain the existing order. He says : " The organi 
ed forces of society are static That is what the 



a torrent that rushes, through th^ 
and is the Universe ! 



organised for. That is their function. The 
intenance of a static order, a stable order is 
ir reason for being ; and if the static and 
ble order happens to be a lie, that makes no 
erence. It is sufficient that it be static. 
The Truth ? What could an established stati? 
er of things care for a thing so fluid, so pro- 
n, so elusive, so difficult to come at as the 
ith — save to kill it if possible ? { 
The Truth is destructive to things establisheoS 
:ry thing we call fixed, settled, stationary, it! 
jeps along before it like so many chips on the\ 
face of 
iverse— 

'Most of us are afraid of roaring torrents. We\ 
nt to be comfortable. ** What will become of 
ilisation " we cry. And then we set to work 
h dams of sand to stop the flood. But I would 
stop it, if the mere crooking of my finger 
uld turn the trick. I would not stop it, not 
lugh I knew it would drown me — which it 
n't. If Truth would drown the world, I say, let 
It is'nt much of a world if such living waters 
these won't buoy it up." 
n these sage words we get a glimpse of Judge 
idsey's nobility of mind, breadth of vision, 
;h purpose and deep sincerity — qualities which 
ormers all over the world would do well to 
ulate. Here we have an inspiring message 
m an ardent devotee in the temple of Truth 
relentlessly cast aside all established hypocri- 
s and unyielding dogmas in a courageous and 
:ermined pursuit after that Light Eternal. It 
:he author's firm faith that youth has an im- 
rtant function to fulfil in this incessant persuit 
d he is also hopeful of the outcome. This is 
ident from the following : 
'That the youth of today makes mistakes,'* 
says, " disturbs me somewhat, but not exces- 
ely. That it is honest heartens and delights 
; much. Here it comes with its automobiles, 
telephones, its folly and its fun and its open 
d unashamed refusal to bow down to a lot of 
)ls made of mud ; and it makes me hope ' 
his revolt of youth", he adds, *' with a scienti- 
and mechanically grounded civilisation at the 
k of it, offers the world more hope than 
>thing that has happened in centuries. About 



|l once in so often, the human race rediscovers 
Fire. This younger generation, Prometheus-like, 
/ is doing it now." ! 
^ In the later chapters of the book Judge Lindsey 
makes a moving exhortation to his brethern of 
the elder generation not to hamper youth in its 
divine pursuit after Truth by putting on its feet 
the shackles of the tradition ridden past. He 
asks : " Can we not start, as it were, a New Past 
which will disown and repudiate the shackles 
and chains of the Old while clinging to those 
things it offers that are good ? " His own answer 
and appeal to the Adult world is: "we can indeed ! 
We can let the numbing poison of irrational 
tradition stop with us — the poison that has warp- 
ed and cramped our past in the racial life. Oh 
that our race might seize upon that truth, and 
then damn this tribal incubus into the limbs of 
forgotten things — setting youth face forthwith, — 
putting into its strong and eager hands the keys 
of Life and Death, — saying, "we from whose loins 
you have sprung trust you ! Make of yourself a 
force that shall work for righteousness, to the 
creation of a new heaven and a new earth. Do 
It in your own way, and by whatever means 
commend themselves to you as just, right, and 
able to stand the test of use." 

No saner or nobler words of advice could be 
given to our elders than these. Nothing but the 
happiest relations can subject between the young 
and the old if the above counsel is carried out 
in its true spirit. For that it is not necessary, 
as the author is careful to point out, that the 
elders should predict and prescribe what the 
specific plan of action is to be for their children. 
All that is needful is that by means of a right 
system of education, we lay upon the hearts of 
our young people the conviction that they have a 
solemn duty to be good and productive citizens 
of the world ; that we plant in their minds the 
suggestion, the faith; that it is their normal 
desire to be such ; that we make it possible for 
the good will and the spontaneous idealism, 
which are youth's natural gift from God, to grow 
unhampered, as grow the flowers of the field ; 
that we protect them from fear and from the 
acceptance of second-hand, standardised, cut-to- 
pattern thought as from a plague ; that we give 



i ffiern 'a back-ground of essential knowledge 
I which withholds no fact on the ground that 
{ there are things which must not be known or 
ji discussed ; and, finally, that we teach them the 
ji Art of Living and permit them a philosophy 
of effort which will carry them through and 
I keep them headed wondering, yet fearless, 
J toward the far horizons to which they naturally 
]| aspire. " 

1 Further on he adds : " If we can consciously 
' and deliberately bequeath them, to the limit of 
jour ability, an unstinted, ungrudged heritage of 
j Health, Beauty, Honesty, Fearlessness, and the 
. knowledge that casts out fear, we shall have done 
I our duty by the future and handsomely disowned 
• every part of the Past that cannot prove its own 
fitness to survive without artificial rejuvenation 
at the hands of worried conservatives. Thus we 
shall have made of our own warped minds and 
crippled bodies a bridge over which our children 
may cross to better things. More, we shall have 
laid upon the state a benison that will protect it 
from all harm, because we shall have placed it, 
unfearing, in the hands of God. " 

The above gives in a nut-shell Judge Lindsey's 
message to the adult world. It is the out-come 
of his prolonged experience and patient thought 
over questions of life and death that came up be- 
fore him while presiding for 25 years as Judge of 
the Juvenile court. There is nothing impractical or 
unsound in it. He holds every one of his sugges- 
tions to be possible, nay, inevitable, and no think- 
ing person can express dissent. But the trouble is 
that to carry out his gospel requires courage, 
faith and a belief that good things, true things, 
survive by their own excellence and by the 
strength of the truth embodied in them. We 
can't believe, in the words of the author, that 
necessary things are stronger than our worst 
follies and that any rigid custom or tradition 
which cannot stand this test does not deserve to 
l^Tsist unchanged. " That is why," he says, " we 
refuse to encourage in our youth sound funda- 
mental motives of action which they must be free 
tu use according to their judgment, even at the 
.cost of blunders and mistakes. Rather we insist 
y>n saying precisely how they shall use them. I 



repeat that our fundamental sin is our lack ( 
faith." 

In the concluding chapters of the book Judg 
Lindsey answers some of the objections usual"; 
raised against his gospel of freedom by criti( 
who are as much concerned as the Judge aboi 
the wave of sexual looseness that is sweepin 
over America and the West in general. Tl 
author's letter to the Rev. R. P. Schuler, in rep] 
to an attack on him in the press, given in tt 
book, provides a brief, but conclusive answer 1 
the school of thought which raises customs an 
traditions to the level of eternal verities and lools 
down upon the revolt of youth as an unpardonabl 
sin, directly promoting the much deplored loost 
ness. Judge Lindsey is never tired of reiteratin 
that the blind attempt to place youth under th 
authority of the Past is the root of the evil an 
causing thousands of young people to overshoe 
the mark of wisdom and moderation in the: 
blind plunge away from arbitrary restraints an 
penalties. Once these restraints and penalties ar 
removed and boys and girls are permitted t 
make their own under wise counsel, with n 
savour of arbitrary restraint, it is the Judge 
firm faith that they will be moderate, that the 
will test every new idea and new custom wit 
due caution and responsibility. If any say Ihz 
youth is incapable of using such freedom arigh 
and that its revolt, its search for new things i 
immoral, dangerous and destructive per S( 
than he says : " I, for one, ferociously den; 
it ; I deny it on the authority of a persona 
experience with young people which, I ventur 
to say has not been duplicated by any man ii 
the world. I am no arm-chaii theorist." 

It is with such sure confidence that Judg 
Lindsey speaks and faces his opponents. W ' 
have suflQciently- burdened this review wit] 
extracts from the book so as to present th- 
problem of youth's revolt clearly before th- 
reader and explain the issues involved in thr 
impressive words of the author himself. Orv, 
may not agree with all that Judge Lindsay sd 
or proposes nor share with him the unboun^ 
faith he professes in the ability of youth to if^c 
after itself without the restraining and discippi- 
ing hand of the Adult. But after a caH^- 



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60 



/ 



BROWNE. The Mystery of Space. A Study of the Hyperspace Movement 
in the Light of the Evolution of New psychic Faculties and an Inquiry 
into the Genesis and Essential Nature of Space by Robert T. Browne. 
Demy 8vo, cloth (pub 15s net) Kegan Paul, 1919 

The author outlines briefly the progress of mathematical thought 
which has led up to the idea of the multiple dimensionality of space. He 
states the cardinal principles of the non-EuclideaD geometry and offers 

^ an interpretation of the metageometrical concept in the light of the 
evolutionary nature of human faculties. He also teaches us to dis- 
tinguish between sensible space ard geometric space, and demonstrates 
that the idea of hyperspace is a herald of a new epoch of intellectual 
expansion and evidence of the first outcroppirgs in the human mind of a 
new faculty which will in time become the normal possession of the 
entire race. 



6 
Post. 6d 



W. Hftflfer & Sons Ltd., Cambridge, England. 





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H. L. Mencken has been making a 
plea for a new slang dietiona^^-; when that 
comes to be compiled this reflection of a 
flappver, furnished by Liberty (Chicago), 
may offer a few words: 

GERTIE MAKES A HOT DECISION 

By Gordon- Seagrove 
I tell you. Pearl. I'm gi\-m" the air 

To the cookie-dusters and parlor snakes. 
An' all them sheiks with the patent hair — * 

How could they keep a mamma in cakes? 
All they can do is spoon and dance — 

A rush of brains to the feet beneath. 
I'm kissin' 'em out! I want a chance ^ 

At a ploddin' guy with 3 gold teeth! f 



A steady guy with his pants cut raw. 

You get me. Pearl — yotir Al's that way. 
An' a strong man s bust an' a fireman's jaw. 

Lead me to him, is all I say! 
A thrifty bozo that's after the gilt 

An' asks for bids on his bridal wreath. 
Show mfe that kind an' I'll chirp, "I wilt." 

Gimme a plodder with 3 gold teeth- 
Honest. Pearl, if you'll read the books, " 

You'll find that guys that gathered the gelt 
Was mainly weak when it comes to looks. 

But terrible strong in the business belt ! 
Me, I'm for 'em! Gil^^me 'em plain! 

Bury the cake-eaters deep in Lethe 
(That means "flni"). I'll say it again — 

Gimme a plodder with 3 gold teeth! 





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The Udana, or the Solemn Utterances of the Buddha. Translated from the 
Pili by Major- General D. M. Strong, C. B. London : Luzac & Co. 1902. 
Pages, vii, 129. Price, 6 shillings net. 

The Udana is a Buddhist book the significance of which has long been under- 
stood by Pill scholars, and many important passages have been translated on vari- 
ous occasions by different scholars. Here we have for the first time an English 
translation which presents the whole of the book containing the solemn utterances 
of the Buddha. In a certain sense, the Udana ranks as high as the Dhamma- 
fada, which contains the moral code of the Buddhists, the Sutta Nifata, poems of 
instruction, the Dhammac?iakkaf>pavattana Sutta, the story of the Foundation 
of the Kingdom of Righteousness , and kindred canonical scriptures. It is more 
philosophical than other books, and discusses the principal doctrines, such as the 
nature of enlightenment, the non-existence of the ego, or the atman, the existence 
of the eternal, the nature of being, etc., etc. 

General Strong in his introduction touches upon the most essential points of 
Buddhism, selecting the following : First, the three characteristics which are that 
all constituents of being are (i) transitory, (2) that they are misery, and (3) that 
they are lacking in an ego. Secondly, the only ideal that in the opinion of the 
Buddhist is worth striving after is the perfect life, or saintship, and this ideal is to 
be reached by emancipation from desire. Thirdly, salvation does not come by be- 
lief, but by keeping the precepts, as is stated in the famous lines : " To commit no 
evil, to do good, to purify the heart, that is the teaching of the Perfect One." 



Fourthly, Nirvana is the extinction in the heart of lust, ill will, and dulness or 
stupidity 

As to an " infinite first cause " (such is the expression of General Strong), Bud- 1 
dhism declares that "the Uncreate exists," and "if thou knowest the Uncreate, 
thou hast found deliverance." 

The continuity of identity is constituted by Karma, or deeds, and Buddhism 
includes representations of a cyclic or evolutionary theory of existence, including 
the assumption of the origination and dissolution of innumerable solar systems. 

A few quotations from General Strong's translation of the Udana will charac- 
terise the book : 

"Purification cometh not by water, though the people bathe ever so long ; 
In whom truth and religion abide, that man is pure, he is a Brahmana." 

"Whatever of sensual pleasure there may be on earth, or in the kingdom 
of the gods, 

It is not worth a sixteenth part of the joy which springs from the destruc- 
tion of Desire. ' 



" He who seeking his own pleasure, does injury to the living, 
For such a one there is no happiness hereafter. 
But he who seeking his own pleasure, injures not the living. 
For such a one there is happiness hereafter." 

" Happy is that upright and learned one who has no possessions ! 
See how the rich man is troubled ; 
How one man is in bondage to another." 

" As the mountain rock unshaken stands 
So, delusion slain, the Bhikkhu 
Like to a mountain, trembles not." 

" He who keeps not watch over his body. 
Who is under the spell of false doctrines, 
Who succumbs to sloth and torpor, 
Such a one passes into the power of the Tempter. 
But he who keeps watch over his mind. 
Whose sphere is right thoughts, 
Who sets ever before him right doctrine, 
Who knows the ' rise and set ' of things, 
Who overcomes sloth and torpor. 

That Bhikkhu escapes from all states of punishment." 

"It is easy for the good to do good, 
It is hard for the good to do evil. 
It is easy for the evil to do evil. 

It is hard for the Saint to do evil." p. c. 



/ 



Foundations of Mathematics 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE PHILOSOPHY OF GEOMETRY 



By DR. PAUL CARUS j 

140 pp., Clothe Gilt Top. Price ^ 75 ceizts net; (Ss. 6d. net^. 



This work is an important contribution to the philosophy o\ math- 
ematics. Dr. Carus is not a mathematician by profession, but a 
philosopher, and he is convinced that the problem in hand is a philo- 
sophical rather than a mathematical one; that it is the old quarrel 
(discussed by Kant) of empiricism with transcendentalism, and hent e its 
treatment may well be philosophical. The first chapter reviews the 
history of non-Euclidean geometry which may justly be considered a 
search for the philosophy of mathematics. Here is given the history of 
the parallel theorem, of the so-called metageometry, followed by an 
account of the various systems in detail, and their exponents, — of Gauss, 
Riemann, Lobatchevsky, Bolyai, their precursors and successors, giving 
a special tribute to Professor Hermann Grassman of Stettin. "The 
Philosophical Basis of Mathematics" deals with the problems of thought 
involved in mathematical science, empiricism and transcendentalism, the 
a priori^ universality, and the fundamental considerations of space. The 
question of dimensions is discussed in "Mathematics and Metageometry." 
This chapter is of especial interest because it contains a practical sug- 
gestion by ' which to represent concretely the relation of the fourth 
dimension to the third, that is to say, what our space would be like if it 
were four-dimensional. In his Epilogue Dr. Carus brings out the analogy 
between mathematics and religion, the ultimate and unchangeable form of 
being and God. 



MR. CHARLES S. PEIRCE'S TYCHISM. 

Our readers may have noticed that since "pragmatism'' 
has become the watchword of a new and popular movement 
with which Mr. Peirce, the inventor of the term, does not 
appear to be in full accord, he has introduced the word 
"pragmaticism" as if to point out the difference between 
his own philosophy and that of Professor James. 

I regret that I shall not be able to enter here into a 
discussion of the views of Mr. Charles S. Peirce whose 
conception of the instability of natural laws is one of the 
most original and most ingenious theories ever brought 
forth. I will only briefly refer our readers to the vigorous 
controversy with him which has appeared in The Monist^ 
where he defends the doctrine of tychism versus necessi- 
tarianism, while I take the opposite position. Mr. Peirce 
believes that natural laws are the product of evolution. In 
the beginning there was Chance (Tyche). Chance is not 
subject to law, it is free as we know spirit to be. Chance 
acts arbitrarily but gradually it took on habits and habits 
became more and more solidified and hardened into laws. 
Hence the order of the universe is not the cause of evolu- 
tion but its product. 

It is not impossible that Professor James follows Mr. 
Peirce, for there is a passage which seems to justify this 
assumption. Professor James says on p. 249: 

"Between categories fulminated before nature began, and cate- 
gories gradually forming themselves in nature's presence, the whole 
chasm between rationalism and empiricism yawns." 

In another passage (p. 158-9) we read: 

^ For details see my discussions on the God problem, especially in The 
Monist, Vol. IX, p. io6. A book on the subject is in preparation. 

"Compare The Monist, Vol. II, pp. 321 ff., 442 ff. ; and III, pp. 526 ff. and 
571 ff. 



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